Sattin Hill Market Farming Course Module 16: Pest Management (FSFS254)

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Episode Summary

This episode of Farm Small Farm Smart features the sixteenth module of the Sattin Hill Market Farming Course, where Josh Sattin talks about weed management—a general approach on weed management as well as long term strategies to tackle weeds on the farm.

Today’s Guest: Josh Sattin

Josh Sattin is a farmer at Sattin Hill Farm in Raleigh, North North Carolina. As an educator and professional videographer, Josh has published hundreds of educational farming videos on his YouTube to help make a difference in the local farming and foodscape.

            Josh Sattin – YouTube | Instagram | Website

In this episode of Farm Small, Farm Smart

  • An overview of the Sattin Hill Farm Course Module 16 (00:57)
  • What is a weed? (01:30)
  • General, overall approach to weed management (01:58)
    • Bio-intensive market gardening (02:45)
  • Planning ahead with a long-term weed management strategy (03:28)
    • Kill everything in the ground with proper bed prep (03:37)
    • Build a deep compost mulch system (05:04)
    • Do not mulch the surface with wood chips (05:50)
    • Employ no-till practices (06:12)
    • Be mindful when using broadforks (08:00)
  • Being proactive instead of reactive when it comes to cultivation (08:44)
    • Tools for cultivation (09:42)
      • Scuffle hoe or stirrup hoe (09:52)
      • Tine weeder or tine rake (10:14)
      • Flame weeder (10:50)
      • Collinear hoe (11:42)
      • Wire weeder (12:00)
  • Keep beds and rows straight for easy cultivation (12:56)
  • Managing weeds on the walkways and borders in your farm (16:44)
    • Create as much of a border around your farm as possible (16:57)
    • Protect your tunnels from anything that might blow in (18:16)
    • Using woodchips on the walkways (18:56)
  • Managing weeds when they’ve gotten out of control (20:08)
    • Pause the bed and place landscape fabric or silage tarp (20:26)  
    • Keep the farm small (21:16)
    • Use holed landscape fabric to plant long-season crops (21:50)

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FSFS254 (SHFC #16)

[00:00:00] Diego Footer: Welcome to farm small farm smart. I'm your host Diego, DIEGO. Today, it's Sattin Hill Farm Course module 16 on weed management. If you wanna watch Josh Sattin's presentation of this module, you can do so on his YouTube channel by going to YouTube and search for Sattin hill farm course, or just type in Josh Sattin, and you'll see this module pop up.

[00:00:26] If you want additional written resource related to this module and all the other modules, visit With that let's get into it. Josh Sattin on weed management.

[00:00:42] Josh Sattin: Welcome to module 16 of the Satton hill farm course. This module is all about how to manage the weeds on your farm.

[00:00:47] And before we get into it, I just have to have a huge thanks to our sponsor without the help of Diego and paper podcast, this entire course wouldn't be possible. And more on them later.

[00:00:57] In this module, I'm gonna be talking about my general approach to weed management, long term strategies, cultivation borders and walkways. And when things get outta control.

[00:01:08] Similar to previous modules in this course, like the last module, which was a pest management, I first wanna talk about a general approach or philosophy or management style that you need to develop for your own farm, because everyone's context is different, but I think it's important that I give you some things to think about.

[00:01:23] So you can make your own game plan and make sure you are gonna have a successful farm and not have to stress out about weed. So before we get into the strategies here, I wanna talk about what a weed is. A weed is just something growing where you don't want it to grow. So often for me, some of my weeds are previous crops.

[00:01:40] Like I could have kale growing in a bed of lettuce, or I could have a random carrot growing in a bed of squash or whatever. So keep that in mind about weeds. A weed is just something that's there that we don't want it to be. It could be a grass, it could be, you know, a flower. It could be anything that's grow.

[00:01:55] And a bed that we don't want it there. So keep that in mind. So overall though, let's have a, uh, talk about general approach and like a lot of other things, as I said in this course, we need to be proactive, not reactive, especially the pest management module. I talked a lot about this. So you hear things often, uh, about weed.

[00:02:12] You say don't let weeds go to seed. Well, The reality is if the weeds are that large, where they're flowering and going to seed, think about how long that weed's been in that bed and how long it's been growing for and not taken care of. So we're not even gonna get to talking about that situation when the weeds get that big, because if you have this sort of approach to farming or gardening, then you hopefully won't get it to that point.

[00:02:34] So again, we need to be proactive and not reactive. So a lot of the techniques and strategies I'm gonna talk about in this module, which I've already talked about in other modules, is going to help us with that strategy. And one of the things that is really cool about the market gardening is what's called bio-intensive market gardening.

[00:02:51] I don't get that term toss around a lot, but it was tossed around quite a few years ago, but it's the idea that we just grow plants really close together and we have a higher density. So that does a couple of things. First of all, it gets us bigger yield, which I'm always talking about on this course. And on my channel is we wanna maximize our yields in the small space, but.

[00:03:08] The plants are close together. Once they grow up and they sort of canopy over the bed, it blocks sunlight from anything growing underneath, and that will also help with weed control. So just in the system that we have in place with this no-till market garden, just having plants close together will help prevent weeds from growing.

[00:03:28] There's a lot of similarities to the pest management module. And also a lot of other things I've talked about throughout this course is that we need to have a long term strategy, need to plan ahead. The best thing you can do to manage the weeds on your farm now is to have prepared the ground properly ahead of time.

[00:03:43] So I talked about this in earlier module. About how we use silage tarps to kill everything on the ground. And so, as I said, also in those modules, if you need to do any groundwork, if you need to, till it or level anything or build ditches or whatever, do all that ahead of time and then put a tarp on it and cover it until everything's killed.

[00:03:59] A lot of people ask me, Hey Josh, can you get this done in four weeks or five weeks or six weeks? I always tell everybody it takes, as long as it takes, everyone has different things growing in their ground. And at different times of year, it's gonna take different amounts of time. Do not rush this step. I cannot stress that enough.

[00:04:14] If you rush this and you pull off the tarp and everything is not dead. When you go to build your beds, you're gonna have weeds eventually. And so the best thing you can do is. Cover it until everything's totally dead and you will significantly reduce your weed pressure for years to come. Now I noticed this on the farm here because in the first two tunnels, we were in a rush over the winter time of the winter of 20, 20 to 2021 to get the farm up and running.

[00:04:38] And so we didn't tarp it. We used chickens to clear it and they do a great job, but they don't kill everything to the same level as a tarp wheel with an extended period of time. So the third tunnel behind me here, there's been pretty much no weeds in this tunnel because we tarped it for a very long time.

[00:04:52] Didn't disturb it. And then we put, um, we built our beds on top of that. So that's super important, taking the time to tarp, everything and tailoring. I cannot stress that enough. It's ready when it's ready. So after that's done, as I said in earlier, modules, we're gonna build the deep compost mulch system, which essentially is a layer of cardboard and then four to six inches of compost.

[00:05:12] Now, when you put down that much compost, it does act as a mulch system, right? The deep compost mulch system. Now, this is a great strategy for building beds quickly and giving you some weed pressure, uh, weed control as well because the cardboard's gonna block out the weeds and that thick layer of compost acts as a mulch.

[00:05:29] But this is not a long term strategy. This is just getting to beds built quickly and getting some immediate control over the weeds, but long term, if we didn't tarp properly, you will see weeds coming up through. And with all of these techniques, we're gonna be layering material. So every time that we flip a bed, we're gonna be adding some more compost or other organic matter so that we can build up the soil over time.

[00:05:50] What we don't want to do is mulch the surface. I know that is a tendency that people like to talk about or have, because in other gardening applications or in landscaping applications, we'll add compost over the surface to help control weeds. But we don't wanna do that here because it's gonna make it really impossible to direct seed crops and transplant.

[00:06:08] And basically if you're market gardening, you can't mulch the mulch with wood chips. It's just not gonna work. So the biggest thing on. In addition to the tarp before we start building beds are the no-till practices. And these no-till practices I talked about in earlier module too, in depth, but we're really trying to create living soil.

[00:06:24] And in that there are four main principles. Just as a reminder, we wanna keep the soil covered. We wanna keep the soil planted. We wanna disturb the soil as little as possible and wanna create diversity whenever it's possible. So the biggest thing about no-till is disturbing it as little as possible in terms of, uh, weed management, of course, covering and planting also helps.

[00:06:41] So the reason for this is that when basically the ground is it's not gonna wanna stay bare very, very long if you've ever like tiled anything up or cleared land, like eventually things start growing. And the reason for this is that the ground is full of different seeds that want to grow. And so we wanna prevent that from happening because again, if anything grows, it's in the ground already.

[00:07:02] It's not the crop we're trying to grow. So that's a weed. So when you till, you invert the soil and all the seeds that are in the, in the soil bank, right. Or in the, in the earth, they come to the service and then they germinate. So on traditional tillage farms, you'll notice. They come through in the spring and they plow the fields, and they do their planting.

[00:07:21] And like a couple weeks later they have weeds that are growing outta control and they're fighting them all season long with cultivation and, um, herbicides and all that kind of stuff. So if we can eliminate that tillage of that inversion of the soil, we're gonna not bring those weed seeds up to the surface.

[00:07:37] So if we kill everything with the tarp and we layer material on top and we don't disturb the soil, then we should reduce the weed pressure significantly. And I think that's super important. So in addition to not tilling, as I said, keeping it covered, we're gonna be doing that with the deep compost mulch system and having living plants in the ground and also keeping it planted.

[00:07:55] Helps the soil biology. So all those things work together to try to minimize the amount of weed pressure. Now, the disturbance thing is important to remember as I was just talking about. And one thing that I, I just wanna point out is the broad fork. Now the broad fork is great in the first year or two, as you're trying to, uh, increase or get the structure in your soil better.

[00:08:12] And so I use the broad fork until I don't need to use it anymore. Now the broadfork can actually cause some weed seeds to come up to the surface and germinate. So if you can, at some point not broadfork anymore, you'll also be limiting the amount of weed pressure. So again, it, all of these no-till practices are as possible, like as much as possible.

[00:08:33] So if you can eliminate soil disturbance, again, that will create less weeds on your farm.

[00:08:43] Now let's talk about cultivation and cultivation can mean different things in different contexts, but what we're gonna be talking about here is a way that we can basically lightly disturb the soil on the top so that we can either kill weeds or prevent weeds from growing. And you can see this on large tractor farms, they'll have different cultivating tools that they attach to the back of the tractors that they can run up and down the beds.

[00:09:02] To try to kill the weeds and keep that under control. But here we're not using tractors and everything's ha um, human powered and, and, and, you know, using hand tools and stuff like that. So making sure that you're staying on top of your cultivation is super important. And when you do that, this is a way that you can keep the weeds under control and really lower the stress on your farm.

[00:09:19] Now, what I'm gonna show you here is the very, we use very small light tools and we just use 'em very often and try to stay ahead of it. At Raleigh city farm, we had about a quarter of an acre out in the field in full production. And between two people, it took probably about 45 minutes once a week to just go through and cultivate everything and just keep the weeds under control.

[00:09:36] So again, it's about staying ahead of it is by being proactive and not reactive. And so that's a lot of the approach here. So I wanna show you some tools and then I'll show you how to use the pretty much the only tool I use at this point. But let me start by showing you some of the tools that I don't use for cultivation either at all or very much anymore.

[00:09:52] So I talked about this in the tool module, but the first one is the scuffle hoe or stirrup hoe. This one is a very course tool. And if you, as I said, if you were managing walkways with something like this, this would be good use for that or larger. Crops, maybe that you're trying to get in and around, but it said with, uh, you know, with drip tape and the kind of crops I'm using, this tool doesn't even get used anymore.

[00:10:14] Another tool that was recommended to me a while ago, uh, is a tine reader, time reader, or time rake. And there are many different versions of this. There's some really fancy ones. Um, that costs like hundreds of dollars. This is a really cheap one. I use this a few times. I never use it. Uh, this is used, uh, when, after you plant crops and you can run this over the bed and sort of scratch the surface.

[00:10:34] I find it just be more accurate using a tool like a hoe or a wire Wheater, which is what I'm gonna talk about. So this is something I don't use. Uh, there's a couple really fancy ones I mentioned before it doesn't get any use anymore. So again, there's some things that I, I bought and tried and just don't use anymore.

[00:10:49] So that's what I wanna show you. The next thing is a flame. We. And this one I used to use a lot. And so this attaches to a normal propane tank that you might have for your, your grill or whatever. And these are cheap. Um, I think this might be a good one to have around for random things. Basically what you do is you just hit the surface with this.

[00:11:06] It only takes a few seconds to kill everything and, uh, it can be very effective, especially managingorders and stuff like that, or you just have an area you just need to kill a couple things quickly. This used to be part of my process all the time, but once I started getting into understanding the no till stuff and preparing the ground with tarps and stuff, I had to use this a lot less.

[00:11:24] And so I find that a lot of people are using this on areas where they're either tilling and they'll come through and like, Do a pre-emergence flame weeding. So before the seeds come up, they'll come through and we, and flame weed the bed. Um, again, I, I don't use it very often. I, I, that's why I forgot to mention it in the tools module now, in terms of the tools that I actually do use, there are two hoes and one is the colinear hose.

[00:11:47] This one was developed by Coleman. This is my favorite, but I've been wind up using this less often because it's pretty sharp, which is great for like harder soil things like. But when I have drip tape everywhere, I wind up like cutting drip tape and stuff like that. So what I've been using lately is the wire weer.

[00:12:03] And that's what I'm gonna show you now. And this is great because it can get into a lot of different areas. And it's just very effective. As I said, it doesn't have sharp edges. This is the one I like. It has a one inch by four inch offset. So I can either run it widthwise or really skinny. If I'm trying to get into some places.

[00:12:22] And the idea here is that we're gonna be running this over the soil before we even have weeds, or when the weeds are really tiny, like thread stage weed. And by just agitating the surface lightly, what we're gonna do is we're gonna manage it to keep the weeds from growing. And we're never gonna have to like go around and pull weeds and lean over and those sorts of things.

[00:12:39] So that's the idea with this. The other thing that's nice. If you're in an area where it's really wind swept and the ground, the surface can get kind of crusty and dry out, this really helps, uh, break up the surface just a little bit. So air and water and stuff can, can go through. So let me shy ahead to use this tool. It's my favorite.

[00:12:54] Now I wanna show you how to use this wire reader. Before I get into that, though, I've talked a lot about with transplanting and direct seeding using string lines and things like the gritter and stuff like that to get really straight plantings is important for cultivation. It makes your life way easier.

[00:13:08] Also, which is important is straight lines and good cultivation makes the farm look nice. And I think that helps a lot of things, especially for marketing because when your farm looks nice, it's really nice to take pictures of, or people are visiting your farm. Also. It's great for morale when the farm is tidy and weed free, you're just excited to come out and work there. And I think that goes a long way. And I think that often gets overlooked.

[00:13:26] I talked a lot about how the, uh, having the farm look nice is important for everything. So let me show how to use this. As I said, I like the wire wheat, the best when you have drip tape or really sensitive plants, because it doesn't have the sharp edges, but again, if you have really crusty soil or you need to agitate the surface a little bit more strongly, the culinary hoe is where it's at.

[00:13:47] So what's important here with the straight rows is that I can walk up and down here and cultivate. And so I just take the hoe and go through the beds like this. And once the plants get bigger, It gets harder to do this, but as you can see, I mean, I would probably do the whole row at once, but here I'm just showing you how this works.

[00:14:07] You can just come through and again, because the rows are so straight. You can easily go up and down. And if you have anything going on in between the plants, you can just come through and knock 'em out. And so these, these weeds that you're seeing here, I didn't clean this up before I started shooting this.

[00:14:24] There are a few in here. Um, as I said, , season's ending and I'm, haven't been in on top of things as I'd like to, but you can come through pretty easily. And you probably notice one thing about when I'm doing this. Is that my I'm standing upright, right? I'm not leaning over in the ground. That's when you start hurting your back and you get uncomfortable and you don't wanna do this anymore.

[00:14:44] So making sure that you're upright when you're doing this, even if it does take a little bit more time and focus to come through and weed, you're not leaning over. And I find this to be a very sort of relaxing event. And it's great. Like you could throw on a podcast or YouTube video or something like that or music and.

[00:15:03] Just work away. It's, it's actually pretty peaceful and easy to, to do. And this is basically how you do this. So by doing this often, this is how you will stay ahead of the weeds and keep everything really small and just make it part of your routine. So, as I said, at Raleigh city farm, we did it once a week.

[00:15:18] It was Mondays. We go on the whole farm and just cultivate and stay on top of it. So that's how I use a wire reader. And you can see that the weeding is very delicate and of course, I couldn't even use something like a scuffle hole in. Because the, um, the plants are so close together also after the plants get a little bit larger and sort of cover the ground.

[00:15:36] Like I mentioned before, you won't see as much weed pressure if you do, you can just pull them. Um, but at that point you're probably almost at harvest. So really simple strategy. Stay ahead of it. Kill the weeds when they're small. And it's not really a big deal. Why are we here where it's at? Let me jump in real quick and take a minute to talk about our sponsor paper pot co, as I mentioned at the beginning of this module and in every module, this entire course is sponsored by paper pot co I literally would not be able to make this course and give away for free on YouTube for all of you to enjoy without the help generosity and support of Diego and Papo their commitment to the farming community in terms of farm education and also selling great tools and equipment is just unparalleled.

[00:16:14] So if you're looking for more farm education, Go check out Diego's podcast like farm, small pharma smart and care cash flow. And of course I'd love for you to go to paper, and check out the tools, equipment, and supplies that they have and support them for supporting this. They have awesome stuff for sale over there.

[00:16:29] They're reliable place to buy things from, and they have great customer service. In addition to all that, there's some extra resources for this course. Over at paper, So you should definitely check that out. Now, back to the module

[00:16:44] throughout this module, I've been talking about how to manage the weeds that might grow in your beds, but we need to talk about the area that are not in your bed. So walkways and the borders. And so this is important to managing the weeds on your farm as well. Let's first by talking about the borders around your farm.

[00:16:57] So either around your field blocks or around your tunnels, like over here, you wanna create as much of a border as possible. That's managed in a way that keeps the weeds at bay, keeps the grasses growing those sorts of things. And the reason for that is as grass grows or whatever else is growing out here, I don't really have, this is a mixture of a million different things out here, which is great, but, um, There's a lot of weed seeds that are gonna blow in from outside.

[00:17:18] And there's really not much you can do about this. It's gonna happen on every farm. And so what you can do is just try to keep as much of a buffer zone as possible. So here I am below the third tunnel, which I talked about this area in the pest management module. So we have a nice section of landscape fabric here, which covers that drainage ditch.

[00:17:34] Of course, I've talked about this plenty of times. And then we have this hedge, which is, you know, got the plants we want in here for beneficial and for pollinators. But also we have this all heavily mulched. And so hopefully this creates a, a nice border between the grass or anything else that's growing over here and the beds in here.

[00:17:49] Because as you know, I don't like to mow very often. I've talked about this plenty of times, sometimes this stuff gets a little tall and stuff can blow in from the outside and I had that problem. So another thing to mention about the borders, you can use wood ships, you can use landscape fabric, but just make sure you.

[00:18:02] Enough room, because even if you give like four feet of landscape fabric, everything's gonna grow over that. And eventually push in, like things get outta control. Especially here in the south. Things grow very quickly in the summertime and it gets like a jungle . So you have to be really careful about that.

[00:18:16] Another thing to mention here about having grassy areas near your tunnels or your field blocks is that whenever you're mowing out here, I always put the sides down on the tunnel. Because that kicks up a lot of grass and seeds and all that stuff. And I don't want that blowing in to the side, especially if you have a mower that, you know, shooting out the stuff to the side.

[00:18:34] So I just put the sides down when I'm mowing. I wanna make sure I keep that out of here as much as possible. So options for managing your borders. Of course, landscape fabric, wood chips, other plants that you know, can take over and sort of keep other things that might grow at bay. You know, the area above the tunnels here, as you know, I have a heavily mul.

[00:18:52] And so all the way around the, the borders, you wanna make sure you're, you're getting that under control. I'm in one of my tunnels here, and I've said this plenty of times that I like to use wood chips in my walkways. And there's a lot of reasons for that. Of course, the biological diversity increasing the fungal life in the soil, all that stuff.

[00:19:06] But you gotta figure out a way to manage your walkways. And I think if you just leave them bare, you're gonna be constantly having to come through with a wheel hoe or scuffle hoe. And that's just a lot of time that we don't wanna spend just taking care of weeds when we can take care of them ahead of time.

[00:19:19] So again, as we. Plenty of times already make sure you kill everything in the salad, sharp, and then you can lay down wood chips in the walkways and you can lay down wood chips to keep the ground covered, which is one of the main things we wanna do. But if you already have a lot of stuff growing there and you don't take the time to kill everything and you add a bunch of wood chips, That's not gonna just eliminate the weeds, but because we've killed everything now, we don't have that weed pressure.

[00:19:40] And so every time we flip a bed or every so often we'll come through and just add some more wood chips, cuz they break down to me personally, that is such a, a better use of my time because it doesn't take a lot of time or energy to put down some wood chips versus having to come through constantly and manage that with, with hoeing it or whatever you else you wanna do to keep it under control.

[00:19:57] So makes you have a game plan. I would not cover it with, uh, landscape fabric. I don't think that would be a great idea, but using wood. Works really, really well.

[00:20:08] Now let's talk about when weeds get outta control and hopefully it doesn't get to this point for you, but I think most of us have experienced this at some point. And if it's not your whole farm, it's part of your farm, or maybe you're trying some new practices or maybe you just neglect an area, cuz you're distracted with other work that you have to do.

[00:20:23] It doesn't matter. Let's talk about some strategies here. One thing that I'd really like to do is just use a strip of landscape fabric. And lay it on a bed. Now, if a bed gets weedy and gets outta control, just pull out what you can or cut it down, put a piece of landscape fabric on it, or a piece of, uh, silage tarps.

[00:20:41] Maybe you have a like four foot wide piece of Sage sharp you can use and just pause the bed. And this works the same as the silage tarp. So like we were talking about before with killing everything. If a bed gets outta control or maybe a whole field block gets outta control, you can use a silage tarp.

[00:20:55] Don't be afraid to just cover up a bed, put it on pause and deal with it later. That's the least stress you can do and focus on the other parts of your farm. I think a lot of times when you get into farming, you expand too quickly. I see this all the time because you get excited. You, you have some success with a small amount of acreage, and then you're like, let's just make more beds.

[00:21:14] Let's get more money. And then the farm gets too big. So another thing you can do is just keep the farm relatively small so you can manage it. I think it's easy to wanna grow more food and have more land in production, but keeping it small is also, uh, a way that you can manage your weeds a lot better. So again, if you have a few beds or a field block, that's got outta control, cover it with a piece of, uh, landscape fabric or silage sharp.

[00:21:37] If it's a whole field block. Another thing is, uh, if you have a new farm and it was recently tiled, or you're trying to convert a tillage farm into a no-till farm. Or you just have an area that's very weedy and you wanna still grow vegetables in there. Another way you can do that is by using landscape fabric with holes in it.

[00:21:54] So we did this at Raleigh city farm, where we didn't get a chance to tarp inside of one of our tunnels, but we started right away. And so by the ti the summer came around, we had heavy weed pressure. And so what we decided to do was put down landscape fabric with holes. We planted some long term crops. We planted some peppers and cucumbers in there, and this allowed us to.

[00:22:12] Cover the ground with landscape fabric to sort of AATE and smother out the weeds at the same time, keep the soil active, keep the biology happy and get production out of it. So this is a good strategy, especially if you are in the process of converting a tillage farm into a no-till farm, you can still grow in those beds.

[00:22:29] And you're just a limit, a little bit limited because you can't direct seed in those you're only gonna be transplanting crops. Um, Have to be careful about the landscape fabric and having the right numbers of holes and spacings for what you want to do. You can't do inter planting as easily, but if you do have this set up, one thing I recommend is you put the drip lines, uh, underneath the landscape fabric.

[00:22:48] So you get irrigation. It's a good, uh, intermediate strategy. A good thing to do. If things gotta control, you still need those beds. Or as I said, when you're converting a farm from a tillage farm to a no-till farm is use the landscape fabric with holes in it. And you can still grow in those beds with all these ideas that I've talked about and outlined in this module and throughout the course, a lot of it takes planning and.

[00:23:09] Strategies that you implement way ahead of time. So the more you can do to kill weeds ahead of time with tarping layering materials, incorporating no-till strategies, you'll be much happier on your farm and weeding makes you no money and it's just time that you waste. So anything you do to minimize that, so you can spend more time on growing and selling your vegetables, doing things that you like to do, like hanging out your family or any kind of fun that you like to do.

[00:23:29] Weeding is not one of those things. So whatever you can do to eliminate that ahead of time, you'll be much happier during the season. When your things are going quickly, it's hot out like it is today. And you'll be, uh, in much better shape. So try to eliminate the weeds ahead of time and don't disturb the soil and incorporate a lot of those no-till practices.

[00:23:45] And you'll be in pretty good shape. Remember, there'll be live Q and a every Monday at 3:00 PM Eastern. So the next one will be about this module. So if you wanna have questions, come and check that out. Next module module 17 will be about some basic composting.

[00:24:00] Diego Footer: There you have it. Josh satin on weed management.

[00:24:03] If you wanna watch this presentation or view additional resources related to this module and all the other modules in the satin hill farm course, visit paper, That's all for this one. Thanks for listening until next time. Be nice. Be thankful. And do the work.


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